BA Washers - Small / Table 1
Washers sized for BA screw/bolts, with a small outside diameter.
BA Washers - Large / Table 2
Washers sized for BA screw/bolts, with a large outside diameter.
Plain Washers (Imperial) Table 3
These were the standard plain washers specified in the UK (apart from BA washers), known as Table 3. Produced in either light or heavy gauge. Can also be made with a 30 deg. chamfer on one side of the outer edge.
Plain Washers (Imperial) Table 4
Table 4 washers have slightly larger outside diameter, and are produced in light or heavy gauge. Light gauge table 4 washers are used extensively on the AC 2 Litre's bodywork, including: 3/16" (1/2" OD); 1/4" (5/8" OD); 5/16" (3/4" OD); 3/8" (7/8" OD).
Black Plain Washers (Imperial) Table 5 upwards
Table 5, 6, 7, 8 etc. washers are 'black' washers. That is, made to wider tolerances than precision washers, and in large sizes (for the building trade, etc.).
United States Standard Washers / USS Washers
These washers are larger for both inside and outside diameters than any of the imperial washers listed above.
These are very similar to imperial table 4 washers, and were introduced mainly for use on motor cars in the USA.
Machine Screw Washers
American washers in small sizes for use with machine screws (sizes 0 to 12).
Penny / Mudguard Repair / Fender Washers
Inch size washers with extra large outside diameters.
Metric Form A
Small outside diameter and heavy gauge, similar to imperial table 3 heavy gauge.
Metric Form B
Small outside diameter and light gauge, similar to imperial table 3 light gauge.
Metric Form C
Larger outside diameter than form A and B, similar to imperial table 4 heavy gauge.
Metric Form D
Larger outside diameter than form A and B, similar to imperial table 4 light gauge.
LOCKING / SHAKEPROOF WASHERS
Older spring washers - as found on the AC 2 Litre - use a square section wire. The more modern trend has been a change over to a rectangular section wire. The really modern trend has been not to use these washers at all! They are not generally effective in what they are supposed to achieve, i.e. keeping a bolted joint tight. They are still of use on joints with soft material such as wood, and so remain useful for the AC's door hinges, etc. Most spring washers are single coil, but double-coil versions have also been produced.
Shakeproof /Lock / Star Washers
These are also of doubtful value, except possibly on softer metals. They have been produced in two basic versions, with internal or external teeth.
Probably the worst type of washer ever created! Not recommended for highly-stressed joints. These are made from soft metal to allow them to be folded up against the flats of a bolt or nut, to prevent rotation. However, the soft material allows the nut/bolt head to sink in, and thus reducing the tightening stress. This rather defeats its purpose!
There is a vast array of washer types for every conceivable duty, and so not worth trying to list here. Common types include hardened washers for highly stressed joints, and tapered washers.
<< Page 4 ****** Page 6 >>
Page 1 - Screw Threads
Page 2 - Bolts, Screws and Studs
Page 3 - Nuts
Page 4 - Nuts (Self-Locking)
Page 6 - Materials and Strength Grades
Page 7 - Tightening
Page 8 - Wood Screws and Nails
Page 9 - Fasteners for the AC 2 Litre Saloon